I've been asked about the following article and the 2020 study it describes.
The study describes the different Types of Shungite, from Type 1 to Type 5. The types are classified according to carbon (fullerene) content:
The study used a product called, "Shungite SH" for the test. Shungite SH is "Type 3" which has a very low carbon content rock, as seen from the article, Shungite Type 3 has 20-35% of its composition as Carbon:
We use deep mine "Elite Type 1" in our water bottles, and we only sell Type 1 Elite and Type 2 Manufactured for Jewelry. Below are our mine sample certificates for Type 1 and Type 2:
This is our Type 1 Certificate, showing 97.8% Fullerene Carbon, and trace amounts of Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Titanium dioxide (TiO2), Aluminum oxide (Al2O3), Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO), Magnesium oxide (MgO), Calcium oxide (CaO), Sodium oxide (Na2O), Potassium oxide (K2O), Elemental sulfur (S). Absent is Nickel, Copper, Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Chromium or Arsenic. Those metals are not found in Type 1, but Type 3 Shungite.
This is our Type 2 Certificate:
This shows 57.2% Carbon Fullerene content, and Silicon Dioxide of 27.8%. The Silicon Dioxide is how we are able to make Jewelry or plates with high Shungite content - it is not brittle like glass, and therefore can be drilled and shaped. (I'm often asked why our ECN raw-stone Type 1 pendants are more expensive than our DMG Type 1 Raw stones. It's because in the drilling process to make the holes to accommodate our necklaces, we lose a number of them due to breakage). There are trace amounts of TiO2 - Titanium dioxide, Al2O3 - Aluminum oxide, FeO - Iron(II) oxide, MgO - Magnesium oxide, CaO - Calcium oxide, Na2O - Sodium oxide, K2O - Potassium oxide, S - Sulfur. and 3 percent water. Our Type 2 does not contain Nickel, Copper, Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Chromium or Arsenic.
So while Type 3 presents metals, our Type 1 and Type 2 have none of the metals present. I would strongly advise you to use only our Type 1 or Type 2 stones for water treatment, as they have been sample-tested for elemental composition. Type 3 or higher should not really be called "Shungite" as its' Carbon content is less than 50%.
We do not sell Type 3-5 Shungite because of the low Fullerene content. The Type 3 Shungite used in the test showed metals leeching into the water because